18 Chapters of Bhagwat Geeta

18 Chapters of Bhagwat Geeta

  1. Arjun Viṣhād Yog : Lamenting the Consequences of War
  2. Sānkhya Yog : The Yog of Analytical Knowledge
  3. Karm Yog : The Yog of Action
  4. Jñāna Karm Sanyās Yog : The Yog of Knowledge and the Disciplines of Action
  5. Karm Sanyās Yog : The Yog of Renunciation
  6. Dhyān Yog : The Yog of Meditation
  7. Jñāna Vijñāna Yog : Yog through the Realization of Divine Knowledge
  8. Akṣhar Brahma Yog : The Yog of the Eternal God
  9. Rāja Vidyā Yog : Yog through the King of Sciences
  10. Vibhūti Yog : Yog through Appreciating the Infinite Opulences of God
  11. Viśhwarūp Darśhan Yog : Yog through Beholding the Cosmic Form of God
  12. Bhakti Yog : The Yog of Devotion
  13. Kṣhetra Kṣhetrajña Vibhāg Yog : Yog through Distinguishing the Field and the Knower of the Field
  14. Guṇa Traya Vibhāg Yog : Yog through Understanding the Three Modes of Material Nature
  15. Puruṣhottam Yog : The Yog of the Supreme Divine Personality
  16. Daivāsura Sampad Vibhāg Yog : Yog through Discerning the Divine and Demoniac Natures
  17. Śhraddhā Traya Vibhāg Yog : Yog through Discerning the Three Divisions of Faith
  18. Mokṣha Sanyās Yog : Yog through the Perfection of Renunciation and Surrender
Qualities for a meaningful life

Qualities for a meaningful life

Bhagwat Geeta – 16 1-3

श्रीभगवानुवाच |
अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिर्ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थिति: |
दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम् || 1||
अहिंसा सत्यमक्रोधस्त्याग: शान्तिरपैशुनम् |
दया भूतेष्वलोलुप्त्वं मार्दवं ह्रीरचापलम् || 2||
तेज: क्षमा धृति: शौचमद्रोहोनातिमानिता |
भवन्ति सम्पदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत || 3||

śhrī-bhagavān uvācha
abhayaṁ sattva-sanśhuddhir jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ
dānaṁ damaśh cha yajñaśh cha svādhyāyas tapa ārjavam
ahinsā satyam akrodhas tyāgaḥ śhāntir apaiśhunam
dayā bhūteṣhv aloluptvaṁ mārdavaṁ hrīr achāpalam
tejaḥ kṣhamā dhṛitiḥ śhaucham adroho nāti-mānitā
bhavanti sampadaṁ daivīm abhijātasya bhārata

śhrī-bhagavān uvācha—the Supreme Divine Personality said; 
sattva-sanśhuddhiḥ—purity of mind; 
damaḥ—control of the senses; 
yajñaḥ—performance of sacrifice; 
svādhyāyaḥ—study of sacred books; 
akrodhaḥ—absence of anger; 
apaiśhunam—restraint from fault-finding; 
bhūteṣhu—toward all living beings; 
aloluptvam—absence of covetousness; 
achāpalam—lack of fickleness; 
adrohaḥ—bearing enmity toward none; 
ati-mānitā—absence of vanity; 
abhijātasya—of those endowed with; 
bhārata—scion of Bharat

Kabir Poem

Kabir Poem

The one anointed by the Guru, hears..
Soft Melodious Cosmic Sounds Saying…

Your Soul originated from “naad bindu” – dot of celestial music
And here you hoard water (referring to things which by their vary nature flow freely)
The whole world says repeatedly this is how it is and must be.
While Brahma is himself without words (noiseless)

The one anointed by the Guru, hears..
Soft Melodious Cosmic Sounds Saying…

Your sold arrived from There to an address in this world
for quenching its own thirst (Desire for God)
But leaving Nector you are drinking Poison again and again
Going in reverse you now toss and turn in your own trap.
The celestial cow (of knowledge / Brahman) is milked
God makes curd for benefit of everyone
Knowledgeable wise men reach for the creamy layer
Butter-milk is what world remains content with

The one anointed by the Guru, hears..
Soft Melodious Cosmic Sounds Saying…

Instead of seeing earth, see it as merely a sphere (planet)
Seeing a lake, understand it is nothing but water
Celestial sphere lights up (when one experiences this Principle)
So say the voice and words of the Guru

The one anointed by the Guru, hears..
Soft Melodious Cosmic Sounds Saying…

“Koham” – “Soham” musical sounds surround
Trikti sacred land (Realized Inners self is wonderful)
[When a child is born it cries Koham-Koham – Who am I? Who am I?
The Child smiles when it hears the Universe reply back: Soham-Soham – You are I, You are I.]
Ida, pingala and Sukhmana energies flow freely
Upon listening to devotional songs
[There are three ‘naadis’ or channels of energy flow within a human body considered essential in yogic meditation. These are Ida(left side), Pingala (right side) and Sukhmana naadi in centre). These 3 channels connect all the seven Chakras]

The one anointed by the Guru, hears..
Soft Melodious Cosmic Sounds Saying…

Says Kabir listen O!
Knowledgeable Wise man
Understand the words of “Agam”
Which works all day long with just a single glance (to look after the universe)
Un-moving and Eternal remains the Sign
[“Agam” is the collection of Nirguna compositions of Shivaite Saints (worshipers of Lord Shiva) of Gupta and Kushan era. Many Shaivaites consider Agam as the Pancham (Fift) Veda

Unsolved Questions to answer

Unsolved Questions to answer

Five big philosophical questions:

1. Do we really have free will?
2. Can we know anything at all?
3. Who am “I”?
4. What is death?
5. What would “global justice” look like?

5 Big Unanswered Science Questions:

1. Why does the universe exist?
2. What is a matter made of?
3. How did life originate?
4. How does consciousness emerge from the human brain?
5. Is there intelligent life on other worlds?

The 7 Biggest Unanswered Questions in Physics:

1. What is a matter made of?
2. Why is gravity so weird?
3. Why does time seem to flow only in one direction?
4. Where did all the antimatter go?
5. What happens in the gray zone between solid and liquid?
6. Can we find a unified theory of physics?
7. How did life evolve from nonliving matter?

What is VSAT?

What is VSAT?

VSAT Definition:

VSAT – Very Small Aperture Terminal – a micro-Earth station that

uses satellite communications technology for reliable satellite communications.

Earth To Satellite Communication

Indoor Unit (IDU)

Satellite Modem: The router transmits modulated carrier either SCPC or TDMA to the radio frequency transceiver using a coaxial cable and with the Intermediate Frequency (IF) band (typically, L-band). 

Outdoor Unit (ODU)

A typical ODU consists of the following:

  • Connecting RF cable
  • RFT – Radiofrequency Transceiver – includes U/C up-converter, Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPA), Down Converter 
  • LNA – Low noise amplifier – It could be a separate unit esp. in DAMA system.

The transceiver is responsible for converts IF frequency band to the required C-, X-, Ku- or Ka-higher frequency band and transmits the converted band and amplified signal to the satellite transponder.

A satellite dish antenna does the further amplification of the signal and forms the focused beam directed to the satellite.


Geostationary satellites are used generally for building a VSAT network. 

VSAT Antenna do hot have to track the Geo Satellites as they are stationary due to placement of it in Geostationary orbit.

Satellite to Earth Communication

The satellite amplifies the received signals and transmits it applying different frequencies. Communication satellites re-transmit signals received from the satellite dishes back to the Earth. 

An unlimited number of VSAT antennas whining a coverage zone of the satellite can receive the signal transmitted by the satellite.

Three layers of Protocol in the VSAT network:

  • Satellite Access Protocol
  • Satellite Network Access Protocol
  • User Data Protocol

Satellite Access Protocol

VSAT shares the Satellite bandwidth and there three ways to do it:

1. Frequency Division Multiple Access FDMA

2. Time Division Multiple Access TDMA

3. Code Division Multiple Access CDMA


FDMA allow sharing of satellite capacity by using a different frequency assignment for each carrier. 

In this way, each VSAT terminals shares the available capacity by carriers transmission at a distinct frequency. The carriers can have distinct power or bandwidth, but the total sum must be within designated capacity.


TDMA allows accessing the allocated capacity in a time-shared mode.

 It is a multiplexing technique in which sub-channels within a single carrier are used to streams of multiple bit transmission simultaneously. There are timeslots available for each sub-channels to give separation between Data Transmission. It allows several VSAT stations to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into different time slots.

CDMA, a pseudo-random sequence encodes the initial signal by overlaying the signal over a larger bandwidth. 

The receiver compares the composite input with the original encoding sequence stored in its memory, in order to restore the original signal.

Satellite Network Access Protocols:

Network Controller at Hub assigned the capacity requested by the VSATs.

There are three ways:

  • on-demand,
  • at random,
  • permanently.

on-demand assignment protocol: 

The VSAT sends the request to hub for a capacity which is pre-assigned, which may be either carriers or a time slot. 

random assignment protocol: 

In this type of assignment, once the traffic is available at one of its data port VSAT transmits. 

permanent assignment protocol: 

The VSAT can access permanently to a small portion of the satellite capacity. 

Time Division Multiplex Time Division Multiple Access

  • Very efficient
  • Use mostly in interactive data applications
  • Data in packetized form
  • Each packet contains an address that represents a data terminal within the VSAT network domain.

Hub-to-VSAT link:

  • Hub to VSAT link is a single carrier. It is the result of multiplexing all the packets from different customers and directing them to the various VSATs in the network.
  • Each VSAT listens to the total traffic carried by the outbound carrier.
  • However, each VSAT will only decode those packets having control information or addresses to one of the interfaces.

VSATs-to-hub link:

There may be one or many incoming carriers.

The incoming carriers carry traffic from the VSAT terminal to the hub.

It will transmit to the hub if a VSAT needs to communicate with a peer.

Demand Assignment Multiple Access (DAMA) 

It is an access protocol that allows each channel to use one carrier pair in a Single Channel Per Carrier – SCPC mode to establish a link.

They are used for voice circuits.