What is VSAT?

What is VSAT?

VSAT Definition:

VSAT – Very Small Aperture Terminal – a micro-Earth station that

uses satellite communications technology for reliable satellite communications.

Earth To Satellite Communication

Indoor Unit (IDU)

Satellite Modem: The router transmits modulated carrier either SCPC or TDMA to the radio frequency transceiver using a coaxial cable and with the Intermediate Frequency (IF) band (typically, L-band). 

Outdoor Unit (ODU)

A typical ODU consists of the following:

  • Connecting RF cable
  • RFT – Radiofrequency Transceiver – includes U/C up-converter, Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPA), Down Converter 
  • LNA – Low noise amplifier – It could be a separate unit esp. in DAMA system.

The transceiver is responsible for converts IF frequency band to the required C-, X-, Ku- or Ka-higher frequency band and transmits the converted band and amplified signal to the satellite transponder.

A satellite dish antenna does the further amplification of the signal and forms the focused beam directed to the satellite.


Geostationary satellites are used generally for building a VSAT network. 

VSAT Antenna do hot have to track the Geo Satellites as they are stationary due to placement of it in Geostationary orbit.

Satellite to Earth Communication

The satellite amplifies the received signals and transmits it applying different frequencies. Communication satellites re-transmit signals received from the satellite dishes back to the Earth. 

An unlimited number of VSAT antennas whining a coverage zone of the satellite can receive the signal transmitted by the satellite.

Three layers of Protocol in the VSAT network:

  • Satellite Access Protocol
  • Satellite Network Access Protocol
  • User Data Protocol

Satellite Access Protocol

VSAT shares the Satellite bandwidth and there three ways to do it:

1. Frequency Division Multiple Access FDMA

2. Time Division Multiple Access TDMA

3. Code Division Multiple Access CDMA


FDMA allow sharing of satellite capacity by using a different frequency assignment for each carrier. 

In this way, each VSAT terminals shares the available capacity by carriers transmission at a distinct frequency. The carriers can have distinct power or bandwidth, but the total sum must be within designated capacity.


TDMA allows accessing the allocated capacity in a time-shared mode.

 It is a multiplexing technique in which sub-channels within a single carrier are used to streams of multiple bit transmission simultaneously. There are timeslots available for each sub-channels to give separation between Data Transmission. It allows several VSAT stations to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into different time slots.

CDMA, a pseudo-random sequence encodes the initial signal by overlaying the signal over a larger bandwidth. 

The receiver compares the composite input with the original encoding sequence stored in its memory, in order to restore the original signal.

Satellite Network Access Protocols:

Network Controller at Hub assigned the capacity requested by the VSATs.

There are three ways:

  • on-demand,
  • at random,
  • permanently.

on-demand assignment protocol: 

The VSAT sends the request to hub for a capacity which is pre-assigned, which may be either carriers or a time slot. 

random assignment protocol: 

In this type of assignment, once the traffic is available at one of its data port VSAT transmits. 

permanent assignment protocol: 

The VSAT can access permanently to a small portion of the satellite capacity. 

Time Division Multiplex Time Division Multiple Access

  • Very efficient
  • Use mostly in interactive data applications
  • Data in packetized form
  • Each packet contains an address that represents a data terminal within the VSAT network domain.

Hub-to-VSAT link:

  • Hub to VSAT link is a single carrier. It is the result of multiplexing all the packets from different customers and directing them to the various VSATs in the network.
  • Each VSAT listens to the total traffic carried by the outbound carrier.
  • However, each VSAT will only decode those packets having control information or addresses to one of the interfaces.

VSATs-to-hub link:

There may be one or many incoming carriers.

The incoming carriers carry traffic from the VSAT terminal to the hub.

It will transmit to the hub if a VSAT needs to communicate with a peer.

Demand Assignment Multiple Access (DAMA) 

It is an access protocol that allows each channel to use one carrier pair in a Single Channel Per Carrier – SCPC mode to establish a link.

They are used for voice circuits.

What is I.D.E.A.?

What is I.D.E.A.?

I – Interested –

Cultivate a sense of curiosity, develop lifelong learning, gather information from reading and from people, reach out to idea-bearers, keep an open mind.

D – Diversity

Tune in to different wavelengths, see analogies, create diverse workforces, avoid herds, cultivate ‘weak’ ties also, bridge different disciplines

E – Exercise

Intellectual calisthenics: prowl in stores, reflect and record, refine a culture of deliberate observation, develop prototypes, build ideas out of bits and pieces

A – Agile

Create a flow of ideas, rub ideas together, create and move between idea spaces and terrains, let ideas percolate, prioritise and defer some ideas, hang out with freaks!

Ashtanga Eight Limbs

Ashtanga Eight Limbs

The eight limbs form represents a sequence from the outer to the inner word.
The eightfold path is called ashtanga, which literally means “eight limbs” (ashta=eight, anga=limb).

The eight limbs are

  1. yama (abstinences),
  2. niyama (observances),
  3. asana (postures),
  4. pranayama (breathing),
  5. pratyahara (withdrawal),
  6. dharana (concentration),
  7. dhyana (meditation) and
  8. samadhi (absorption).


Yama points towards

  • ethical standards and sense of integrity,
  • focusing on our behavior and how we conduct ourselves in life.

Moral imperatives (the “don’ts”)

The five Yama:

  • Ahimsa: nonviolence
  • Satya: truthfulness
  • Asteya: nonstealing
  • Brahmacharya: continence
  • Aparigraha: noncovetousness


Niyama includes virtuous habits and observances (the “dos”). It has to do with self-discipline and spiritual observances.

The five niyamas are:

  • Saucha: cleanliness, purity, clearness of mind, speech and body
  • Samtosa: contentment, acceptance of others, acceptance of one’s circumstances as they are in order to get past or change them, optimism for self
  • Tapas: heat; spiritual austerities, persistence, perseverance, austerity, asceticism, self-discipline
  • Svadhyaya: study of the sacred scriptures and of one’s self, study of Vedas, study of self, self-reflection, introspection of self’s thoughts, speech and actions
  • Isvara pranidhana: surrender to God, contemplation of the Ishvara.


The postures practiced in yoga. The meditation posture should be steady and comfortable.

A posture that one can hold for a period of time, staying relaxed, steady, comfortable and motionless.


The control of the breath.
It consists of techniques designed to gain mastery over the respiratory process while recognizing the connection between the breath, the mind, and the emotions.


Withdrawal or sensory transcendence.
To make the conscious effort to draw our awareness away from the external world and outside stimuli.

Cultivating a detachment from, our senses, we direct our attention internally.
A step of self extraction and abstraction.

It empowers one to stop being controlled by the external world, fetch one’s attention to seek self-knowledge and experience the freedom innate in one’s inner world.

It is the transition of yoga experience from the first four limbs that perfect external forms, to the last three limbs that perfect the yogin’s inner state:

  • moving from outside to inside, from the outer sphere of the body to the inner sphere of the spirit.


It means concentration, introspective focus and one-pointedness of mind.

Holding one’s mind onto a particular inner state, subject or topic of one’s mind.

Fixing the mind means one-pointed focus, without drifting of mind, and without jumping from one topic to another.


It literally means “contemplation, reflection” and “profound, abstract meditation”

Dhyana is contemplating, reflecting on whatever Dharana has focused on.

It is the uninterrupted flow of concentration.


It is a state of ecstasy. Its literal mean is “putting together, joining, combining with, union, harmonious whole, trance”

At this stage, the meditator merges with his or her point of focus and transcends the Self altogether.

Samadhi is oneness with the subject of meditation.

Five Thinkers

Five Thinkers

If you have a passion for changing your life forever, then listening to these five experts –
Dr. Joe Dispenza,
David Goggins,
Marc Allen,
Tom Chi, and
Nassim Haramein
– will help you realize new ways of thinking about the world, your place in the world, and how you can make optimistic changes in your life (and the wider world, as well.)

Some people are dismissive of so-called “self-help” experts. They think that motivational speakers and self-help gurus base their ideas on whatever will appeal to people desperate to change their lives, promising ‘easy fixes’ that don’t really work. However, these five experts have backgrounds in advanced science, extraordinary achievements in the business world, and even world-record breaking athletic achievements to back up what they say. They ‘walk the talk,’ so to speak.

Wouldn’t you be interested in learning how to innovate from a successful inventor?
Or how to overcome challenges from a world champion endurance athlete?
How about learning about making positive changes in your mindset from an actual neuroscientist, or learning how to attract success into your life from a self-made multi-millionaire?
Do you think a physicist might have something to teach you about harnessing the different energies in the universe to help you achieve your goals?
If so, read on, and discover five great minds that can help you change your life.


Dr. Joe Dispenza is a chiropractic doctor who is also a lecturer, author, and educator. If you want positive changes in your life, you need to listen to Dr. Joe Dispenza because his advice comes from a strong scientific background – he uses principles from neuroscience and developments in epigenetics to advise people on how to change their lives for the better.

Dr. Dispenza believes strongly that every person has the potential for greatness and unlimited abilities. He believes people can rewire their brains and condition their bodies to make lasting positive changes in their life.

Dr. Dispenza teaches:

  • People with illnesses can heal their bodies without drugs or surgery, through thought alone
  • Meditation grows your brain so that you have more of the raw materials in your brain that you need to create, invent, dream, learn, remember, and improve your mind and awareness.
  • Repeating thoughts always lead to the same choices. Recurrent choices always lead to the same behaviors. Repetitious behaviors create similar experiences, and the same experiences create the same emotions – and those emotions create the very same thoughts.
  • It is all about how you think, how you act, and resulted in feelings to make your personality, and personal reality is the end product from your personality.
  • In order to create a new, better life, you have to become aware of your self-limiting thoughts and change them.
  • You will be predictable in your life if you are not passionate about the vision of the future, which is more significant than you.
  • To change is to think greater than the realities of your life. It requires a vision of something that is not yet ‘real’ but is alive in your mind.
  • When you first make changes, it can be uncomfortable, but that is a good sign that you are moving past the same old predictable thoughts and behaviors.

Visit Dr. Joe Dispenza Website


David Goggins is a retired U.S. Navy SEAL. He is the only veteran who has completed SEAL training, the U.S. Army Ranger School and Air Force Tactical Air Controller training. He is best-known for his achievements as an endurance athlete, competing in ultra-marathons and ultra-triathlons, and also once held the Guinness World Record for pull-ups. If you want to change your life, you need to listen to David Goggins because he has valuable advice about overcoming obstacles, getting in the right mindset for success, and not just surviving, but thriving even when things are though.

Goggins’ advice is all about how to achieve your personal bests by pushing yourself well past your comfort zone. For him, physical and mental suffering are not setbacks but assets on your journey of self-discovery, helping you feel more clear, focused, and alive.

Goggins teaches:

  • It’s always your responsibility to fix your problems, even if someone else caused them. For example, if you’ve been bullied or abused, it’s your responsibility to move past this and stop acting like a victim.
  • You can’t achieve anything until you believe it’s possible. You need to get rid of defeatist attitudes what will stop you from succeeding in your own goals before you even try.
  • You always need to find energy and strength to stay in the fight, no matter how challenging things are, because ‘giving up’ is just another term for ‘failing.’ You can never fail if you simply never give up.
  • You need to be prepared for everything that might happen to you – every obstacle you might find in your way – to have the mindset you need to conquer life’s biggest challenges.
  • Stop comparing yourself to others and despairing – your life is yours alone, and you are always running your own race. Focus on personal bests, not being the best.

Visit David Goggins Web Site


Marc Allen is a renowned author, composer, and speaker. On his thirtieth birthday, Marc co-founded New World Library and has grown the business to become a successful multi-millionaire. If you want to change your life, you need to listen to Marc Allen because he understands the principles of the ‘law of attraction,’ which teaches us that in order to reach our goals, we first need to believe that we will have what we want and banish negative or discouraging thoughts.

Allen believes everyone can achieve the same success he has if they just believe in themselves. He believes that every thought we have – good or bad – is creative, and our reality is determined by whether we let the bad thoughts dominate the good things.

Allen teaches:

  • Every thought we have is a powerful creative force. This means that affirmations, prayers, declarations, ‘the law of attraction,’ positive thinking, creative visualization, and self-actualization are real methods to create change.
  • The only thing that can stop us from achieving our dreams is our fears and doubts. This is because these negative thoughts are also creative forces, and if we let them, they will override our positive thoughts.
  • As soon as we focus on our dreams as much (or more) as we think about our fears and doubts, a process begins that helps us realize those dreams. Thinking about our dreams is the first step in this process.
  • Because our thoughts and beliefs are so powerful, it is essential to be aware of our thoughts and beliefs at all times – and if we need to, either let them go or change them into more powerful, positive beliefs.

Visit Marc Allen Website


Tom Chi is a former astrophysicist who helped to invent software, including Microsoft Outlook and hardware including self-driving cars and Google Glass. That experience led him to see that there was a lot more to the world than just creating expensive technology products, so he began working on social entrepreneurship projects to benefit impoverished people using the same methods he has used in the tech world – working rapidly, inventing new technologies – and found that they worked. If you want to change your life, you need to listen to Tom Chi because his ideas about keeping your mind open will help you become more receptive to new possibilities and new opportunities.

Chi focuses on strategies for being creative and inventive and encouraging the flow of new ideas, emphasizing the importance of keeping your mind open and being willing to accept solutions that work even if you don’t fully understand why they work. He believes that everything is connected – and not in an abstract, esoteric way, but in a very concrete, realistic way.

Chi teaches:

  •  Knowing is the enemy of learning. Knowing makes learning something new impossible, because you are not open to new data or new possibilities when you think you ‘know’ the answer.
  •  When we work in the real world (or ‘use reality as our medium’), our ability to understand things and create solutions is so much greater. We need to do before we think, not think before we do. Doing is the best kind of thinking.
  • You don’t need to know how things work, as long as you can see that they do work.
  • You can maximize your rate of learning with a difficult project by maximizing the time you use to try new ideas. This model also works for getting funding for new businesses and doing social work in developing communities – the faster you move, the better the results.
  • Thinking too much – or having endless planning meetings/sessions before you actually start doing something – will only slow down the process of making real progress and solving your biggest problems.
  •  Even the small things you can create today might become the big things that future generations will continue.
  •  It’s worth thinking that maybe the meaning of our lives may be beyond our understanding.

Visit Tom Chi Website


Nassim Haramein is a physicist who saw a problem with conventional theories of physics – there were explanations for big phenomena (like gravity and black holes) as well as smaller phenomena (like communication between atoms in individual cells) but not enough connecting the ‘big ideas’ and ‘small ideas.’ If you are passionate about improving your life, you should listen to Nassim Haramein because he has developed a unified theory of space and energy – including phenomena both big and small – in what he calls ‘our connected universe.’

When you see the universe as connected, you understand that what you do has power, and matters in not just human history, but the history of the universe. Many mainstream physicists do not accept Haramein’s theories, but remember, many groundbreaking scientists – from Galileo to Einstein – didn’t receive a lot of recognition in their lifetimes, and some of the most influential scientists experienced a severe backlash. Haramein is a good role model because this lukewarm reception from other physicists hasn’t stopped him from further developing and refining his theories.

Haramein teaches:

  • ‘Empty space’ does not exist anywhere in the universe.
  • Sometimes, significant breakthroughs will be resisted by people who are wedded to old, outdated ideas. This is not a reason to become discouraged and stop trying to make important breakthroughs.
  • Time does not exist without memory. Time and psychology are connected – memory is what produced the concept of time. The main ingredient of time, or memory, is space. Our memories leave a trail of information in space.
  • If memory is inherent to humans, it is inherent to the universe – which means that advanced societies could exist elsewhere in space.
  • There is no longer a separation between spirituality and technology. Spiritual concepts are usually precursors to understanding science and material reality.
  • If you think of yourself as an astronaut exploring your own mind, you will begin to understand yourself better and better. There is great value in becoming an ‘inner space’ explorer and discovering (and transgressing) the boundaries of your inner self to find fundamental truths that will help you understand the rest of the world.

Know more about Nassim Haramein


If you’ve always thought self-improvement or self-help is ‘pie-in-the-sky thinking’ for people who would fall for anything that makes them feel better about themselves, these five thinkers will help you see that it is actually firmly grounded in the real world.

 Dr. Joe Dispenza, David Goggins, Marc Allen, Tom Chi, and Nassim Haramein are all educated people who are masters in their respective fields, from science to entrepreneurship to succeeding as an elite athlete.

 These incredible thinkers have found ways to relate complicated concepts in easy to understand ways to help you change your life for the better, by being aware of the power of your thoughts, understanding your place in the universe, and recognizing your ability to effect change.

 Consider the possibilities;

what if you can heal illness not with drugs and surgery, but through thought alone?
What if you don’t have to feel like a victim forever, but can take charge of your own destiny?
What if the only thing preventing you from achieving success is your fear, something you can conquer?
What if you don’t need to know or understand everything to make real breakthroughs that will not just improve your life, but can help others around you?
What if everything in the universe really is connected, so what you think and do becomes part of the organization of the universe?
What could you achieve then?

It may be that not every thinker on this list makes resonates with you, and that’s okay. However, just opening your mind to new possibilities is enough to inspire greater learning and understanding, so it’s worth giving each of these thinkers a chance. You have nothing to lose – and everything to gain as you work to improve your life and make your life matter.